The 18th century was a period of immense industrialization that brought about radical changes to the nation, its people, and their dreams. Towns and cities experienced a population explosion, and although the number of Irish-born Londoners decreased from 107,000 in 1861 to 60,000 in 1901, other groups filled the gap in the city's difficult economy. In 1900, the Pan-African Conference was held in London, demonstrating that the capital was not only the center of the empire but also a hub of imperial dissent. Beginning in the 1860s, London's Jewish community grew rapidly due to those who escaped compulsory military service in the armies of the Austrian Empire and those who were affected by the famine that ravaged Russia between 1869 and 1870. Unlike other historic cities such as Athens or Rome, London's listed sites and buildings are individual structures that often incorporate components from different eras.
It was once thought to have been the work of an “intermediate party”, but the political alliances of this period cannot be classified that way. Some of these areas, such as Enfield, Hampton and Chelsea, developed into the centers of modern London. The stagnation or slow growth of London's population during this period was also reflected in a marked decrease in construction activity. In 1801, when the first reliable modern census was conducted, Greater London had 1,096,784 inhabitants; this figure rose to just over 1.4 million by 1815. In contrast to earlier centuries when people married in their late twenties and had relatively few children both in and out of wedlock, a new pattern emerged in London as early as 1730s and became well established by 1760s. This shift in attitude towards infant mortality is evident both in the creation of institutions such as the Foundling Hospital in 1741 and in the decline in convictions for infanticide which began in the 1730s when efforts were made to support single mothers instead of shaming them. By 1861, Greater London had more than three million inhabitants; this number more than doubled to over seven million by 1910s.
During this period, London's population was dominated by young people and women; this is reflected in various Acts passed during this time. The opening of the London Underground in 1863 reduced distances and allowed residents to move away from crowded city centers to more spacious suburban developments. One group whose presence is not clearly reflected in records is women; they represented less than a third of defendants in 18th century cases but this figure dropped to around 15% by mid-19th century and just over 8% by 1910s. From having approximately three-quarters of a million inhabitants in 1760, London continued with a strong growth pattern during the last four decades of 18th century. The political evolution of London has been shaped by its people and their aspirations. From its humble beginnings as a small city with limited resources to its current status as one of Europe's most vibrant capitals, London has undergone a remarkable transformation over time.
The city has seen waves of immigration from different parts of Europe and beyond, each bringing their own culture and customs to enrich its unique identity. The development of infrastructure such as transportation networks has enabled people to move away from overcrowded city centers to more spacious suburban areas. The city has also seen a shift towards greater acceptance for single mothers and a decline in convictions for infanticide. London's history is one that is constantly evolving; it is a city that has embraced change while still maintaining its unique identity. From its industrial revolution beginnings to its current status as one of Europe's most vibrant capitals, London has undergone an incredible transformation over time.